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Rio Agreements

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Rio, 1992. It has been ratified by all UN states except the USA.

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a multilateral treaty which came into force at the end of 1993. It has three objectives:

    Conservation of biodiversity Sustainable use of the components of biological diversity Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources

Currently there are 196 parties (195 states and the EU) to the CBD treaty, 168 signatories, and 30 ratifications. The USA is the only UN member state that has not ratified the treaty.

The Cartagena Protocol (2000) regulates the transnational traffic of genetically modified organisms.

The Nagoya Protocol was adopted at the 2010 10th Conference of Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October in Nagoya, Japan. The full title is Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is concerned with the objective of 'Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources'.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992 (Rio).

The UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) is the principal treaty for coordinating international response to the threat of climate change. It was formulated on 9th May 1992, and signed by 154 states at the UNCED (Rio Earth Summit) in June the same year.

The aim of the UNFCCC is: "to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic [i.e., human-induced] interference with the climate system". (Article 2)

It came into force on 21 March 1994. The Secretariat is located in Bonn. There are now 195 states party the agreement, who meet annually (COP: Conference of Parties). In the 1997 COP in Kyoto, the Kyoto Protocol was formulated, which entered into force on 16 February 2005, and regulates greenhouse gas emissions trading.