Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Rio, 1992. It has been ratified by all UN states except the USA.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a multilateral treaty which came into force at the end of 1993. It has three objectives:
Conservation of biodiversity
Sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources
Currently there are 196 parties (195 states and the EU) to the CBD treaty, 168 signatories, and 30 ratifications. The USA is the only UN member state that has not ratified the treaty.
The Cartagena Protocol (2000) regulates the transnational traffic of genetically modified organisms.
The Nagoya Protocol was adopted at the 2010 10th Conference of Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October in Nagoya, Japan. The full title is Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is concerned with the objective of 'Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources'.