Disabled Javascript!  

Science Library.info

 You are reading this message because you have attempted to access a page on www.umwelt.science which requires Javascript to be enabled.

Javascript is an essential tool for much functionality on the internet, and is perfectly safe to use, since modern browsers prevent abusive use. If you have it disabled, you will not be able to run any interactive software.

You can enable it from the menubar of your browser, following these instructions: Instructions for enabling Javascript on different Browsers

Dictionary

International Treaties and Conventions

A treaty is between nations and/or supra-national bodies and organisations. The words agreement, convention, and protocol are, in terms of the rules and standing in the eyes of international law, identical. Treaties between two parties are known as bilateral treaties. More than two parties is a multilateral treaty.

Before a treaty is signed or ratified, parties may propose caveats, or reservations, to certain clauses or sections. These are statements which exclude or modify the clause and its obligations on the party. Reservations may not be added after signing or ratification. This is one of the reasons that treaties can take many years before it is ratified by the member state.

A protocol is a supplemental treaty or agreement to an initial treaty. The UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992) set out a general framework for greenhouse gas emission reductions. More specific individual targets, provisions and regulations, were nutted out and set down in the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. Playing its part as perennial obstruction to international consensus, the USA demonstrated the principle that signing the original treaty does not oblige a state to sign and ratify the subsequent protocols, thereby undermining the will and spirit of the other 192 states who did sign and ratify both the treaty and subsequent protocol.

Examples of international treaties for the protection of wildlife and nature:

  • Antarctic Treaty, Washington DC, 1959.
  • World Heritage Convention Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Paris, 1972.
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Nairobi, 1992.
  • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), Bonn, 1979.
  • Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, (CITES), Washington DC, 1973.
  • Ramsar Convention Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, Ramsar, 1971.
  • Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), Paris, 1994.
  • FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, 1983.
  • International Tropical Timber Agreement, (ITTA), Geneva, 1994.

Noise Pollution

  • Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977

Nuclear safety

  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996
  • Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), Vienna, 1986.
  • Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (Notification Convention), Vienna, 1986.
  • Convention on Nuclear Safety, Vienna, 1994.
  • Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
  • Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Vienna, 1963.

The international agreements for the conservation of species and terrestrial living resources:

Treaties and conventions

The international agreements for the conservation of species and terrestrial living resources:

  • Antarctic Treaty, Washington DC, 1959.
  • World Heritage Convention Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Paris, 1972.
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Nairobi, 1992.
  • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), Bonn, 1979.
  • Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, (CITES), Washington DC, 1973.
  • Ramsar Convention Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, Ramsar, 1971.
  • Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), Paris, 1994.
  • FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, 1983.
  • International Tropical Timber Agreement, (ITTA), Geneva, 1994.

Noise Pollution

  • Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977

Nuclear safety

  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996
  • Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), Vienna, 1986.
  • Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (Notification Convention), Vienna, 1986.
  • Convention on Nuclear Safety, Vienna, 1994.
  • Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
  • Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Vienna, 1963.