German Wind Policies
Offshore wind energy was championed by Europe, primarily the UK and Denmark. Now Germany wishes to exploit its enormous offshore potential as well.
German Wind Energy Policies
German offshore wind policies
The Grid Expansion Area Ordinance of the Federal Network Agency covers developments of grid integration in the northern states with offshore wind farms (Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the northern region of Lower Saxony and the city-states of Bremen and Hamburg). The new tendering system will put limits on further wind development.
The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) 2017 officially changed the system of support from guaranteed feed-in tariffs (FIT’s) to competitive auctions for most renewables installations from 1 January 2017. Operators may obtain funding through winning a competitive auction, bidding for a contract on the basis of the price of the electricity produced. The new tendering system will be fully implemented by 2019, and is expected to encourage citizens' energy projects. The Offshore Wind Act is part of the EEG 2017 and applies to new offshore wind projects after 2020, and aims for sustainable growth and price reduction. The offshore target is 15 GW by 2030.
The industry is facing the challenge of implementing the competitive tendering system, while being reliant on the grid expansion to take up the intermittent wind power. The turbine export market is also presenting difficulties from competition and inconsistent demand.
EDL-G is the German Law on energy services and other energy efficiency measures.
German Environment Agency Energy Policies
The (German) BMUB Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (till 17 Dec. 2013 BMU, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) has set ambitious and inspiring targets with regards Germany's commitment to combat climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
BMUB seeks to create the legislative and incentive framework for a consistent improvement in energy efficiency, as a key element of their sustainable climate and energy policy, 28 September 2010, and the Energy Transition Decisions of 6 June 2011 .
The goal is to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% of the 2008 level by 2020, and 50% by 2050; and electricity consumption by 10% of the 2008 level by 2020, and 25% by 2050; i.e. an average increase in energy productivity of 2.1% per annum.
Furthermore, it was decided, in the long term to reduce the primary energy demand of existing buildings with the aim of having a nearly carbon-neutral building inventory by 2050. The heating demand of buildings should be reduced by 20% by as early as 2020.
Germany is also working on a European level for an ambitious and binding package of measures to increase energy efficiency, so that across Europe there will be energy savings of 20 percent by 2020.
BMU Climate Targets
The German national and European climate and energy policies are confronting the twin challenges of finding solutions to climate change, while at the same time ensuring a workable energy price structuring.
More than 80% of Germany's greenhouse gas emissions are related to energy. Energy and climate policies of the future are therefore heavily emphasising energy efficiency and the development of sustainable energy sources.
Greenhouse gas emissions not related to energy are primarily produced by industry and agriculture. GHG emissions must also be reduced in these sectors, if long-term climate protection targets are to be achieved.
The long-term goal is to make Germany's energy supply as nearly CO2 neutral as possible by 2050, necessitating a reduction in the 1990 CO2 GHG emissions from 80 to 95 percent. Intermediate goals for 2020 and 2030 need to be achieved via measures and instruments - the closer we are the more concrete these can become.
EDL-G Gesetz über Energiedienstleistungen und andere Energieeffizienzmaßnahmen, Latest edition: 15/4/2015 (Law on energy services and other energy efficiency measures)