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Dictionary

German Electricity

  • German Electricity Generation
    • The Energy Mix of a country is a political policy statement, or actual situation, concerning the range of electricity-generating energy sources used by that country. Germany has recently announced a phasing out of its nuclear reactors. It proposes an increase in renewable energies to make up the shortfall, to avoid an increase in reliance on fossil fuels.

      The energy mix in Germany in 2014: (in Terawatt-hours)


      Energy sourceGenerated power (TWh)Percent of totalChange over 2000
      Coal264.843.2%-7.3%
      Natural gas58.39.5%+1.0%
      Fossil oil6.01.0%0.0%
      Nuclear97.115.8-13.7%
      Renewable160.526.1%+19.6%
      Other27.34.4%+0.4%
      Total614100%+6.5%

      Energy sourceGenerated power (TWh)Percent of totalChange over 2000
      Fossils341.254.3%-5.7%
      Nuclear97.115.5%-14.0%
      Renewable162.525.9%+19.3%
      Other27.04.3%+0.4%
      Total627.8100%+8.9%
      Net Export35.65.7%+5.8%

      Non-renewable Energy (2014)


      Energy sourceGenerated power (TWh)Percent of totalRelative change over 2000*Real change over 2000 (Twh)
      Coal274.443.7%-6.8%-17.0
      Natural gas61.19.7%+1.2%+11.9
      Fossil oil5.70.9%-0.1%-0.2
      Total341.254.3%-5.7%-5.3

      * Change in percentage of total electricity production from this source


      Renewable Energy (2014)


      Energy sourceGenerated power (TWh)Percent of totalRelative change over 2000*Real change over 2000 (Twh)
      Wind57.39.1%+7.5%+47.8
      Biomass43.36.9%+6.6%+51.7
      Photovoltaic36.15.7%+5.7%+36.1
      Hydropower19.63.1%-1.2%-5.3
      Domestic waste6.11.0%+0.7%+4.3
      Total162.425.8%+20.8%+124.6

      * Change in percentage of total electricity production from this source


      Data Source: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Power Generation 1900-2016

  • Electricity Autobahn
    • A major part of the German Energiewende plan is the expansion of renewable energy to cover 80% of German power requirements by 2050. An investment in the necessary infrastructure to make this feasible includes an 800km underground 'Electricity Autobahn", bringing power from the wind-rich north to the becalmed south of Germany.

      The network operators Tennet and TransnetBW are proposing a new route. Because of civil protests against huge high voltage masts, the Suedlink transmission system will cost 10 billion euro. It will be the longest high-voltage DC transmission line in Europe.

      The Suedlink total capacity will be four gigawatts, equivalent to the power output of four large conventional power plants. Eight cables will be laid on a 30m wide track, from Schleswig-Holstein to Bergrheinfeld in Bavaria, and to Großgartach near Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg.

  • German renewable electricity generation
    • Since the introduction of the government-led initiative known as the Energiewende ('Energy Transition') in the early 2000s, German has seen a remarkable improvement in its energy policies by stages, and the results so far are impressive. the ambition is to eliminate both nuclear and fossil fuel dependence as early as possible, while ensuring the German economy as a whole benefits from this more sustainable system.

      The German Power Generation Energy Mix in 2015
      Energy SourceGenerated Power /TWhPercent of the total
      Anthracite117.818.2
      Brown coal155.324
      Total coal273.142.2
      Methane56.98.8
      Other31.74.9
      Total fossil and other361.755.9
      Nuclear91.214.1
      Renewables194.130
      Total647100
      Renewable energy Power Generation in Germany 2015
      Energy SourceGenerated Power /TWhPercent of the Total
      Wind86.113.3
      Biomass49.87.7
      Photovoltaic38.25.9
      Hydro19.43.0
      Total193.530

      Data from the BDEW Analysis Report for 2015: 21.12.15, strom-report.de

      As renewables became more established, targets became more ambitious. For example, in 2000 the target of percentage of total electricity generated by renewables in Germany for 2020 was set at 20% (exceeded in 2011). In 2009, the 2020 target was raised to 30% (exceeded in 2015). By the publication of the federal 'Energy Concept' plan in 2010, it was pushed up to 35%. This looks likely to be surpassed as well. The Energy Concept itself expects more than 38%, and some industry pundits even 47% renewables by 2020.

      EEG

      The German EEG (Renewable Energy Sources Act) has had several editions (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2016/7), each of which has adjusted the basic framework which is designed to transform German electricity generation from nuclear and fossil to a primarily renewable supply. The latest edition reflects the growing concerns about price, infrastructure and security of supply.

      By 2014 renewable energy subsidies would be financed by the EEG feed-in-tariff (FIT).This tariff, a fee paid by most consumers, has risen sharply, from 1 c/kWh in 2007, to 3.50 c/kWh in 2011, to 5.40 c/kWh in 2013. And now in 2017 it has again been increased to 6.85 c / kWh.

      Source: Herausforderungen und Entwicklungen in der deutschen Energiewirtschaft (Challenges and Developments in the German Energy Economy), Dominik Möst, Theresa Müller and Daniel Schubert, from »Die deutsche „Energiewende“ nach Fukushima« (The German 'Energy Transition' post Fukushima), Jörg Radtke and Bettina Hennig 2013, S. 201-225.