Disabled Javascript!  

Science Library.info

 You are reading this message because you have attempted to access a page on www.umwelt.science which requires Javascript to be enabled.

Javascript is an essential tool for much functionality on the internet, and is perfectly safe to use, since modern browsers prevent abusive use. If you have it disabled, you will not be able to run any interactive software.

You can enable it from the menubar of your browser, following these instructions: Instructions for enabling Javascript on different Browsers

Dictionary

Emissions Regulation

  • Clean Development Mechanism
    • Under the Clean Development Mechanism, emission-reduction projects in developing countries can earn certified emission reduction credits. These saleable credits can be used by industrialized countries to meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.

      The purpose of the mechanism is to help developing countries - according to the definition of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which are countries not included in Annex I to the Climatic Convention - to achieve sustainable development and contribute to the prevention of dangerous climate change. At the same time, the mechanism is intended to assist the industrialized countries listed in Annex I to meet their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol.

      Under this mechanism, emission reduction measures can be implemented in developing countries and these savings can be certified. The resulting CER (Certified Emission Reduction) certificates can be calculated for the reduction targets in industrialized countries.

      An industrialized country subject to reduction obligations, which is listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol, can generate CERs in a country which is not listed there by the implementation of emission reduction measures. A CER confirms a reduction in emissions by one tonne of CO2 equivalents. These CERs can then be included in the emission targets received. The basic idea of ​​the CDM is that it is often cheaper to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries than in industrialized countries. For example, the conversion of existing industries and infrastructures in the industrialized countries is more cost-intensive than the sustainable development of the (old technology) existing industries in the developing countries. The financial and technological investments by the Annex II countries are to promote the sustainable economic development of the host countries in the same way. The CDM should ultimately be a win-win situation for industrialized and developing countries. In the EU, the national reduction targets have largely been transferred to the main private sector. This is done through EU emissions trading (EU-ETS), which feeds to a large extent the demand for CERs. The transfer of obligations to the private sector has resulted in a number of regulated companies participating in the development of CDM projects.

  • Paris Agreement
    • The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is a 2015 agreement between the 195 Member States of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the aim of climate protection following the Kyoto Protocol.

      Adopted by consensus 12 December 2015, the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC. By December 2016, 194 UNFCCC members have signed the treaty, and 132 have ratified it. By October 2016, there were enough ratifications (accounting for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions) for the agreement to come into force, which it did so on 4 November 2016.

      Aims

      Article 2 of the Agreement states the aims as enhancing the implementation of the UNFCCC through 3 means:

      1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
      2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;
      3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.
  • Certified Emission Reductions
    • CERs (Certified Emission Reductions) are an important instrument of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM is one of the three Kyoto Protocol flexible mechanisms to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of the mechanism is to help developing countries - according to the definition of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which are countries not included in Annex I to the Climatic Convention - to achieve sustainable development and contribute to the prevention of dangerous climate change.

      At the same time, the mechanism is intended to assist the industrialized countries listed in Annex I to meet their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol. Under this mechanism, emission reduction measures can be implemented in developing countries and these savings can be certified. The resulting CER certificates can be calculated for the reduction targets in industrialized countries.

      By 2013, 54% of all CER projects had been registered in China, which also received 63% of all certificates.

      An industrialized country subject to reduction obligations, which is listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol, can generate CERs in a country which is not listed there by the implementation of emission reduction measures. A CER confirms a reduction in emissions by one tonne of CO2 equivalent. These CERs can then be included in the emission targets received. The basic idea of the CDM is that it is often cheaper to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries than in industrialized countries. For example, the conversion of existing industries and infrastructures in the industrialized countries is more cost-intensive than the sustainable development of the often less-advanced existing industries in the developing countries.

      Media announcement by Bundes Umweltamt Deutschlands, 17/02/17:

      Federal Government business travel remains climate neutral

      Operators of climate protection projects worldwide are eligible to apply for offsetting procedure

      Joint press release by the German Environment Agency and the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

      The Federal Government neutralizes once again all emissions caused by its business trips. Emissions will be offset by high-quality climate protection projects. The Federal Government plans to purchase and permanently cancel a total of 203,630 Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for 2015. Climate-friendly action – avoidance, reduction, offsetting – therefore continues to be a fixed feature of official travel. More than 100,000 CERs were already purchased and cancelled in 2014. Federal Environment Minister Barbara Hendricks said: “The less we fly, the better it is for the environment and climate. But where it is unavoidable, it can be helpful to offset the CO2 emissions which are produced. We are again calling upon national and international providers to offer carbon credits from high-standard climate protection projects".

      The Federal Government decided in 2015 to offset the climate impact of all its employees' business travel as of the the beginning of the current legislative period. These are all trips by air and car of 110 ministries and federal authorities.

      Maria Krautzberger, President of the German Environment Agency ( UBA ), said: "When selecting climate protection projects we focus on measures which promise to make an especially high contribution to sustainable development. As a result, offsetting business travel goes beyond compensation for greenhouse gas emissions alone. The quality criteria for the selection of climate protection projects are oriented towards the guidelines of Germany's Climate Action Plan 2050 and the global UN Sustainability Goals."

      The UBA has launched the procedure to purchase 203,630 CERs for 2015 under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. It enables industrialised countries, in cooperation with developing countries, to implement climate protection projects outside their own countries. The UBA reviews all the proposed projects for compliance against high quality criteria.

      The volume of emissions is calculated based on business travel data from 2015. The UBA gathered data on all the distances travelled by air and the fuel consumption of the ministries and federal authorities’ vehicle fleet to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions for air travel are multiplied by a factor of three to take the higher climate impact of air travel into account.